Research Summary: How Do The Chinese Perceive Ecological Risk In Freshwater Lakes?0
In this study, we explore the potential contributions of a risk perception framework in understanding public perceptions of unstable ecosystems. In doing so, we characterize one type of common ecological risk– harmful algal blooms (HABs)–in four of the most seriously eutrophicated freshwater lakes in China. These lakes include Chaohu, Dianchi, Hongze, and Taihu, where a total of 2000 residents living near these sites were interviewed. Regional discrepancies existed in the pilot study regarding public perceptions of ecological changes and public concerns for ecological risk. Comparing HABs and other kinds of risks (earthquake, nuclear, and public traffic) through the psychometric paradigm method, Knowledge, Effect, and Trust were three key factors formulating the risk perception model. The results indicated that Knowledge and risk tolerance levels had significant negative correlations in the higher economic situation while correlations in the lower economic situation were significantly positive. Effect and risk tolerance levels had significant negative correlations in the high and middle education situation while correlations in the low education situation were close to zero or insignificant. For residents from Taihu with comparatively higher economic and educational levels, more investment in risk prevention measures and stronger policies are needed. And for residents from Hongze and Dianchi with comparatively low economic and educational levels, improvement of the government’s credibility (Trust) was the most important factor of risk tolerance, so efforts to eliminate ecological problems with the stepwise development of economic and educational levels should be implemented and gradually strengthened. In turn, this could prevent public discontent and ensure support for ecological protection policies.
As a result of anthropogenic activities such as aquaculture, agriculture, waste discharges from industry, and human recreational activities , the rising ecological risk of harmful algal blooms (HABs) which may cause human disease  has become a worldwide concern , especially regarding China. HABs currently disturb four of China’s largest fresh water lakes: Chaohu, Dianchi, Hongze, and Taihu, leading to different levels of water quality degradation, ecological damage, threats to human health, and socioeconomic losses , . An algal bloom event which contaminated 70% of the water plants in Wuxi attracted extensive national attention in June 2007; drinking water contamination prevented nearby 2 million citizens from obtaining potable water for several days, which resulted in excess demand for bottled water and consequently price inflation (nearly fivefold) . Citizens may have varying levels of sensitivity to the ecological risks posed by frequent HABs, and there exists a diverse array of public risk perceptions regarding this kind of risk. Thus, risk perception research helps us to ascertain the attitudes of the public regarding ecological risk and to understand the factors that determine risk tolerance. Depending on career , , education , , gender , , etc., individuals hold different perceptions on how dangerous an ecological risk could be. In addition to scientific and technical information , other factors (experience, familiarity, residency, etc.) influence individual decision-making abilities , , –. The psychometric paradigm method was first used in a risk analysis of a nuclear power plant , and it is currently the most influential method that sociologists apply in the field of risk analysis of public perception . The “cognitive map” of hazards produced by the paradigm explains how people perceive the various risks they face , which uses several hazard characteristics (e.g., controllability, newness, dreadfulness, etc.) that hypothetically influence risk perception. Previous risk analysis studies have surveyed a wide range of hazardous events which were divided into 4 main types: technical (e.g., nuclear power plants), ecological (e.g., global warming), daily (e.g., public traffic), and natural (e.g., floods, landslides, earthquakes) hazards. These studies revealed the various factors that can significantly influence risk perception, such as how one’s familiarity with public transportation impacts the degree of risk tolerance more significantly than one’s familiarity with nuclear power. Furthermore, risk perception was influenced by individual-difference predictor variables, including demographics , , –, expertise , ,, the potential ecological impact ; social background (i.e. culture) , customs , economic development status , and environmental conditions , , all of which could also affect public actions and perceptions –.
Currently, few studies have discussed the impact of lake ecological risks on public perception, and none have taken into account regional discrepancies. Regarding the public attitudes towards water quality, some considered clear water as the most important water quality characteristics followed by fewer HABs  and were willing to pay for a reduction in the health risks posed by HABs . However, there are still some people who fail to consider the chronic effects, which result in their perceived risk different from the actual , . As public risk perception is likely to strongly influence behavior and result in different risk levels , improving risk perception through education for risk management and reduction seems very important. China has numerous lakes which are also vital drinking water resources, and the distribution of these lakes is widely dispersed. Understanding public risk perception can greatly inform policy officials on what constitutes publicly-acceptable water management strategies, while maintaining the ecological health of vital water bodies. Due to the 2007 algal-bloom outbreak in the Lake Taihu region, on September 7, 2011 the State Council promulgated the Regulation on the Administration of Taihu Lake Basin. In this way, the actions of the State Council underscored the dramatic importance of balancing ecological protection policies with local political governance . Thus it is worth studying how the Chinese perceive ecological risks in these lake regions.
The present work aims to explore the potential contributions of a risk perception framework in understanding Chinese public perceptions of unstable ecosystems. In doing so, we use HABs as a primary example from which to characterize a lake ecological risk. This study aims to discover the following: 1) determining factors which influence public tolerance in the risk perception model by using a comparative analysis of four typical kinds of hazards; 2) perception factors which create discrepancies in local residents’ risk tolerance levels of HABs; 3) and how demographic characteristics and social indicators influence the relationship between each perception factor and risk tolerance level.
Full study, including methods, results and discussion, published under open-access license in PLOS ONE.